About Brain Injury
According to Brain Injury Australia: “The disability called brain injury – sometimes called acquired brain injury, or “ABI” – refers to any damage to the brain that occurs after birth. That damage can be caused by an accident or trauma, by a stroke, by a brain infection, by alcohol or other drug abuse or by diseases of the brain like Parkinson’s disease. 1
“Brain injury is common. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, over 700,000 Australians have a brain injury, with daily “activity limitations” and “participation restrictions”. Three in every four of these people are aged 65 or under. As many as two out of every three acquired their brain injury before the age of 25. Three-quarters of people with a brain injury are men,” according to Brain Injury Australia. – Brain Injury Australia. 2
Brain Injury is the “multiple disabilities arising from damage to the brain acquired after birth. It results in deterioration in cognitive, physical, emotional or independent functioning. It can be as a result of accidents, stroke, brain tumours, infection, poisoning, lack of oxygen, degenerative neurological disease etc.”
The National Community Services Data Dictionary (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra, 2012)
Traumatic Brain Injury occurs as the result of some external force being applied to the brain.
Tumours cause damage to the surrounding brain tissue and structures as they grow within the brain.
Stroke usually occurs as the result of a haemorrhage or blockage to the blood vessels that supply blood to the various regions of the brain.
Bacterial or viral infections can lead to an inflammation of the brain covering (meningitis) or the brain tissue itself (encephalitis).
Alcohol acts as a toxin and the long-term misuse of alcohol can cause damage to brain tissue.
Hypoxia/anoxia refers to reduced or, complete, stopping of the flow of oxygen to the brain leading to injury to brain tissue. Can be caused by overdoses, failed hangings, or near-drowning.
Degenerative Neurological Diseases
Conditions including Huntington’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, and Alzheimer’s Disease are caused by abnormal changes to brain cells in particular regions of the brain.